Through its Sustainable Cocoa Initiative Mars Chocolate invests tens of millions of dollars each year to foster innovation in agricultural science, transfer key technologies to farmers, and enact rigorous certification standards to address worst forms of child labor. Their program enables effective collaboration between farmers, manufacturers, governments and NGOs. With the U.S. Department of Agriculture and IBM, Mars completed a two year effort to sequence and annotate the cocoa genome and made the genome public through the Public Intellectual Property Resource for Agriculture (PIPRA). They established the Mars Center for Cocoa Science (MCCS) in Brazil and as well as Cocoa Development Centers (CDCs) in Africa and Asia to cultivate and distribute disease-resistant trees that produce more cocoa. Mars set up network of Village Cocoa Centers—privately owned nurseries that distribute planting material locally – and was the first major chocolate manufacturer to pledge to buy 100% certified sustainable cocoa by 2020.